The long-term follow-up of urinary tract infection (UTI) in childhood: The LUCI Study

Principal / Lead investigator
Co-investigators / research team
Type of study

Electronic record-linked cohort study


The aim of this project is to determine the short, medium and longer-term outcomes of urine infections (UTI) in childhood and to determine whether there is a difference between UTI that is identified through routine practice and UTI identified through systematic urine sampling (where all ill children have their urine sampled).

We have previously conducted two large studies of acutely ill children less than five years old in primary care (EURICA study n=1003 Wales only; DUTY study n=7163 England and Wales) and collected urine samples systematically from all ill children. We found UTI was present in 5.9% and 5.6% respectively in NHS laboratories in the two studies. We followed up EURICA children for six months and a sample of DUTY children for three months.

This study will use routinely collected data to follow DUTY and EURICA children up for 5 years to determine short (up to 1 year) and medium (1-5 years) term outcomes for UTI identified through systematic urine sampling. The outcomes of interest will include further UTI episodes, difficulties with passing urine (dysfunctional voiding syndromes), hospital admissions, any scans on the kidneys or bladder, kidney scarring, high blood pressure and kidney failure.

Lay involvement

A group of parents were contacted through the Involving People Network. This group reviewed the study protocol and the letter that will be sent to all DUTY and EURICA participants. Changes to the letter were made in response to their comments to ensure that the information in the letter was communicated in an appropriate way. Similar meetings with this group will be arranged at other key stages of the project – for example when the results are being interpreted. 

Who is the study sponsor?

Cardiff University

Does the study involve commercial partnership activity?


UKCRN portfolio number (if relevant)

To follow


Health and Care Research Wales

Total grant value


Start date


End date


How could this research potentially benefit patients?

This project will address a range of important questions relating to the epidemiology and risk of long term complications of UTI in children. It will help to determine whether a broader urine sampling strategy is warranted. The findings will be important for clinicians and policy makers and will inform clinical guidelines. It will also pave the way for even longer-term follow-up of cohorts of children with UTI (diagnosed both systematically and non-systematically) which has been identified as a high research priority by NICE.

Related links


Outputs generated (Reports / Publications / Impact)

Lugg-Widger FV, Angel L, Cannings-John R, Jones H, Lau M, Butler C, Francis NA, Heginbothom M, Hood K, Paranjothy S, Van der voort J, Hughes K. Long-term outcomes of urinary tract infection (UTI) in Childhood (LUCI): protocol for an electronic record-linked cohort study. BMJ Open 2019;9:e024210. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024210