ExPLAIN: Exploring factors increasing paramedic likelihood of administering analgesia in pre-hospital pain – a cross-sectional study

Principal / Lead investigator
Co-investigators / research team
  • Dr Zahid Asghar, University of Lincoln
  • Prof Helen Snooks, Swansea University
  • East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust
  • East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust
  • South Central Ambulance Service NHS Trust
  • University of Hertfordshire 
  • University of Sunshine Coast (Australia)
  • Swansea University
Type of study

Cross-sectional study


This study aims to identify how patient factors such as age, gender, ethnicity and the cause of pain together with clinician factors such as sex or role seniority affect pain assessment and use of analgesic drugs by ambulance staff.

The study builds on previous research conducted by members of the team in the area of prehospital pain management and the findings will be used to inform recommendations to improve the rate and quality of acute pain relief provided by ambulance staff and to reduce unintended variations in care.

Lay involvement

Details to follow

Who is the study sponsor?

University of Lincoln


Falck Foundation

Total grant value

£ 46,613

Amount accruing to Wales

£ 674

Start date


End date


How could this research potentially benefit public / patients?

Details to follow

Further information (e.g. related web link

‘CaHRU wins new grant to investigate prehospital pain management’. Community and Health research Unit News, 20/12/2015: http://cahru.org.uk/2015/12/20/cahru-wins-new-grant-to-investigate-prehospital-pain-management/

Outputs generated (Reports / Publications / Impact)

To follow